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Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education

Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
(An Autonomous Body of Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, Government of India)

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Frequently Asked Questions


1. How to get genetically superior seeds of forestry species ?
  IFGTB supplies limited quantity of superior seeds of Eucalyptus, Casuarinas and Acacias on first cum first serve basis every year. Please contact the Director for further information.
 
2. Can I get what kind of planting materials should be used to enhance productivity?
  Clones generally enhance the productivity than the seed materials.
 
3. Will I get advise on what kind of trees to plant in my land and how to cultivate them?
  Yes. Contact the Director with the details of your land.
 
4. Flowering is scanty in the plantations. How to improve it?
  Application of Paclobutrazol promote flowering .
 
5. What is the optimal clonal composition for Tamarind orchards? How does it influence in yield       patterns?
  Monoclonal plantation should not be done in Tamarind. A minimum of 5 different clones is optimal for high yield.
 
6. Why is Eucalyptus targeted for genetic modification studies?
  Eucalyptus is used as a raw material in pulp and rayon industries and is planted even in wastelands. Estimated area under Eucalyptus in India is 25,00,000 ha. Moreover, Eucalyptus is an introduced species and there are no natural populations of Eucalyptus in India, thereby reducing concerns on transgene escape into the wild. Eucalyptus is amenable for in vitro regeneration as well as macro propagation, thus enabling easy propagation of genetically modified trees. The Institute also has an ongoing program for Eucalyptus improvement. Superior genotypes have been selected for seed orchards and plantation programmes.
 
7. What are the traits being targeted for genetic modification?
  Presently Osmotin gene is being used for development of transformation protocols. Osmotin gene has been reported to enhance tolerance to salt stress and disease. Eucalyptus is used as a raw material for paper and pulp industry. Genetic modification of lignin and cellulose profiles would be attempted once routine transformation of Eucalyptus is achieved.
 
8.  How to select a suitable DNA marker system for analysis of different levels of populations?
  In our study on Eucalyptus and Casuarina, we have found that dominant markers like ISSR and RAPD can be used at species level differentiation while ISSR, FISSR, AFLP and SSR were found suitable for sub specific taxa including provenances and clones.
 
9. What are the softwares used in genetic diversity estimation using molecular data?
  The softwares used for genetic diversity estimation using DNA marker data (dominant and co dominant) include NTSys, POPGENE, WINBOOT, Arlequin and DNAPOP.
 
10. How to develop SSRs in species with no sequence information? Is there any alternate strategy available for SSR enrichment?
  Development of a microsatellite marker system for a new species requires isolation, cloning, sequencing and characterization of microsatellite loci. Several procedures are available for the enrichment of microsatellites in genomic library like use of anchored repeat primers or probes to improve the efficiency of microsatellite isolation The development of microsatellite markers through these laboratory based screening of SSR libraries is highly time consuming and expensive. An alternate strategy is to cross amplify SSRs across species or genera followed by construction of enriched library and subsequent sequencing and development of primers. This strategy was used to develop SSRs in Casuarina equisetifolia.
 
11. Are there any specific DNA markers to identify different Eucalyptus species?
  We have developed species-specific ISSR markers for E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, E. urophylla and E. citriodora while no specific markers could be detected in E. tereticornis. However work is in progress to identify SSR markers specific to E. tereticornis.
 
12. What are the advantages of Association mapping over QTL mapping?
  Association mapping is a recent concept used in phenotype – marker association based on Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) existing in a natural population while QTL mapping involves linkage of marker with trait in a segregating population. In tree species with long gestation period, generation of segregating populations with contrasting phenotypes is time-consuming, hence association mapping on candidate genes can be an alternate approach where an unstructured population can be used. Here the marker is present very close to the candidate gene (in kilobasepairs) or within the candidate gene as SNPs reducing the number of segregating generations for validation.
 
13. What are the different bamboo species for which tissue culture protocol has been developed?
  We have already developed tissue culture protocols for Dendrocalamus strictus, Bambusa arundinacea and Oxytenanthera stocksii while for other bamboo species like Bambusa nutans and Dendrocalamus giganteus the protocols are presently being developed.
 
14. What are the cost reduction strategies followed for in vitro multiplication of bamboos?
  The cost reduction methods include use of liquid media, commercially available sugar instead of sucrose and ex vitro rooting of microshoots.
 
15. Is there any somatic embryogenesis protocol available in bamboos?
  Yes, somatic embryogenesis has been reported in D. strictus. The details can be found in the paper titled “Enhanced somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus). Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology 2003. 4(1and2): 9-16.
 
16. Are you working on micropropagation of hybrid clones?
  We have reported the axillary bud proliferation of a putative hybrid of Eucalyptus torreliana X E. citriodora. The plants were supplied to Tamil Nadu Forest Department for further multiplication through vegetative cuttings.
 
17. Have the tissue culture plants evaluated for their performance in the field ?
  We are presently field-testing tissue culture raised plants of bamboo and comparing their growth performance with seedlings and vegetatively propagated material.
 
18. What are the tests carried out in the seed testing laboratory?
  Seed Germination test, vigour test, purity analysis.
 
19. I intend to cultivate medicinal plants where do I find market for these?  Please guide?
  We can help you in seed handling methods and raising seedlings of selected medicinal plants. But we do not deal with marketing. We kindly suggest  you to contact Ayurvedic medicine producers like Kottakkal vaidya shala, Oushadhi, pharmaceutical industries or co-operative societies functioning in Kerala and Karnataka for this purpose.
 
20. Is there any service available to diagnose pests and disease problems of forest seeds, nurseries and plantations?
  Expertise available for diagnose of forest nurseries and plantations pests and diseases.
 
21. Are the methods of Management of pests and diseases problems of  forestry available?
  Methods of management of key pests and diseases problems of specific forestry tree species like Teak, Casuarina, Acacia, Albizia, Tamarind, Eucalyptus and Neem, are available
 
22. What are  the tested  eco friendly methods of management of pests and disease of forestry species?
  Use of different plant products and Microbial agents for management of selective insect pests of seeds, nurseries and younger plantations of commercially important tree species like Teak, Casuarina, Acacia, Albizia, Tamarind, Eucalyptus are evaluated and standardized.
 
23. Is there expertise available on Biofertilizers?
  Expertise available for isolation, identification and mass production of tree species specific ecto and endo mycorrhizal biofertilizers .
 
24. Whether identification services are available in the Herbarium?
  Yes, identification of forest plant species of Southern India are undertaken on payment of fee as per ICFRE rate. Each plant specimen should be accompanied by notes on its habit, habitat and information on flower and fruit characters and other relevant details, for taxonomical identification of the species.
 

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